Tag Archives: natural

Most Powerful Natural Antibiotic Ever – Kills Any Infections in The Body

killsinfection

The basic formula of this powerful tonic dates back to medieval Europe, that is, from the era when people suffered from all sorts of diseases and epidemics.

This master cleansing tonic is actually an antibiotic that kills gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It has also a powerful antiviral and antifungal formula, increases blood circulation and lymph flow in all parts of the body. This plant-based remedy is the best choice for the fight against candida.

This tonic has helped many people to cure many viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal diseases and even plague! Its power should most certainly not be underestimated.

It can cure many chronic conditions and diseases. Encourages blood circulation, and purifies blood. This formula has helped millions of people throughout the centuries to fight the most deadliest diseases.

The secret is in the powerful combination of high-quality natural and fresh ingredients!

To sum up, this tonic is effective in the treatment of all diseases, successfully strengthens the immune system, acts as an antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antiparasitic medicine. Assists in the most severe infections.

Master tonic – Recipe

You may want to wear gloves during the preparation, especially when handling hot peppers, because it is difficult to get the tingling off your hands! Be careful, its smell is very strong, and it may stimulate the sinuses instantly.

Ingredients:

  • 24 oz /700 ml apple cider vinegar (always use organic)
  • ¼ cup finely chopped garlic
  • ¼ cup finely chopped onion
  • 2 fresh peppers, the hottest you can find (be careful with the cleaning – wear gloves!!!)
  • ¼ cup grated ginger
  • 2 tbsp grated horseradish
  • 2 tbsp turmeric powder or 2 pieces of turmeric root

Preparation:

  1. Combine all the ingredients in a bowl, except for the vinegar.
  2. Transfer the mixture to a Mason jar.
  3. Pour in some apple cider vinegar and fill it to the top. It is best if 2/3 of the jar consist of dry ingredients, and fill in the rest with vinegar.
  4. Close well and shake.
  5. Keep the jar in a cool and dry place for 2 weeks. Shake well several times a day.
  6. After 14 days, squeeze well and strain the liquid through a plastic strain. For better results put a gauze over it. Squeeze well so the whole juice comes out.
  7. Use the rest of the dry mixture when cooking.

Your master tonic is ready for use. You do not need to keep the tonic in your fridge. It will last for long.

Extra Tip: You can also use it in the kitchen – mix it with some olive oil and use it as a salad dressing or in your stews.

Dosing:

  • Caution: The flavor is very strong and hot!
  • Extra Tip: Eat a slice of orange, lemon or lime after you take the tonic to ease the burning sensation and heat.
  • Gargle and swallow.
  • Do not dilute it in water as it will reduce the effect.
  • Take 1 tablespoon every day to strengthen the immune system and fight cold.
  • Increase the amount every day until you reach a dose of 1 small glass per day (the size of a liquor glass).
  • If you struggle against more serious disease or infection, take 1 tablespoon of the tonic 5-6 times a day.
  • It is safe for pregnant women and children (use small doses!) because the ingredients are all-natural and contain no toxins.
  • Warning: Do not use on an empty stomach, and start with a teaspoon for the first few times. It is POTENT and can cause nausea or vomiting if you are not used to it.

Health benefits

Garlic is a strong antibiotic with a wide range of health benefits. Unlike chemical antibiotics that kill millions of friendly bacteria your body needs, its only goal is bacteria and microorganisms. Garlic also encourages and increases the level of healthy bacteria. It is a powerful antifungal agent and destroys any antigen, pathogen, and harmful disease-causing microorganisms.

Onion is garlic’s closest relative ​​and it has a similar but milder action. Together they create a strong fighting duo.

Horseradish is a powerful herb, efficient for sinuses and lungs. It opens sinus channels and increases circulation, where common colds and flu usually begin, as most doctors would agree.

Ginger has powerful anti-inflammatory properties and it is a strong circulation stimulant.

Chili peppers are the most powerful circulation stimulators. They just send their antibiotic properties to fight the disease where it is mostly needed.

Turmeric is the most perfect spice, cleanses infections and reduces inflammation. Blocks the development of cancer, and prevents dementia. It is especially useful for those who struggle with joint pain.

Apple cider vinegar – there must be something very healthy in the use of apple cider vinegar as the father of medicine, Hippocrates, used vinegar around 400 BC because of its healthy properties. It is said that he used only two remedies: honey and apple cider vinegar.

Apple cider vinegar is made from fresh and ripe apples which are later fermented and go through rigorous process to give the final product. Apple cider vinegar contains pectin, a fiber that reduces bad cholesterol and regulates blood pressure.

Health experts agree that people need more calcium as they get old. Vinegar helps the extraction of calcium from foods it is mixed with, which helps in the process of maintaining bone strength. Potassium deficiency causes a variety of problems including hair loss, brittle nails and teeth, sinusitis, and runny nose.

Apple cider vinegar is rich in potassium. Studies have shown that potassium deficiency results in slow growth. All of these problems can be avoided if you use apple cider vinegar regularly. Potassium also removes toxic wastes from the body.

Beta-carotene prevents damage caused by free radicals, maintains skin firm and young. Apple cider vinegar is good for those who want to lose weight.

It breaks up fat which supports a natural weight loss process. Apple cider vinegar contains malic acid, efficient in the fight against fungal and bacterial infections. This acid dissolves uric acid deposits that form around the joints, and thus alleviates joint pain. Dissolved uric acid is later eliminated from the body.

It is believed that apple cider vinegar is useful in treating conditions like constipation, headaches, arthritis, weak bones, indigestion, high cholesterol, diarrhea, eczema, sore eyes, chronic fatigue, mild food poisoning, hair loss, high blood pressure, obesity, and many other health problems.

The master tonic is the best combination to fight each of these conditions. Protect your health using natural antibiotics!

source: http://complete-health-and-happiness.com/powerful-natural-antibiotic-ever-kills-infections-body/

Advertisements

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

Home Made Cold and Flu Remedy

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

Eating Sesame Seeds Superior To Tylenol for Knee Arthritis

4317_BIO_Sesam_800x600px

A remarkable new study published in the International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases confirms that food is not only medicine, but sometimes superior to it. Medical researchers working out of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran, sought to investigate the effects of sesame seed supplementation on clinical signs and symptoms in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Knee osteoarthritis is a form of degenerative joint disease or degenerative arthritis localized in the knee, and causes a variety of symptoms including pain, swelling, abnormal bone growth (which can result in bone spurs), disfigured cartilage and loss of motion, and it affects as many as 12,1 % of adults aged 60+, according to the CDC. Standard therapy involves the use of NSAID drugs, many of which have been linked both to internal bleeding and significantly increased risk of cardiac mortality, which is why the researchers sought out to look for “a complementary treatment to reduce complications and costs.”

The study took fifty patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, and divided them into two 25-patient groups: a sesame group, receiving 40 grams/day of powdered sesame seeds, and a standard drug therapy group, receiving two 500 mg doses of Tylenol twice a day along with 500 mg of glucosamine once daily. After two months of treatment, 22 patients in the sesame intervention group and 23 patients in the control group completed the study.

sesame_benefits

Table 1

Considering that treatment was comprised of little over an ounce and one half of sesame seeds, the results were truly remarkable. As presented in Table 1 above, there was a significant difference in pain intensity between the two groups after treatment, with the sesame group seeing the largest drop from 9,5 before treatment to 3,5 after treatment, and the control group seeing a more modest drop from 9 before treatment to 7 after treatment. Additional measurements were taken using both the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) Questionnaire and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) Test. Both tests revealed a similar degree of positive change in both treatment and control groups, when compared to baseline. [See table 2 and table 3 below].

KOOS_score

Table 2 [KOOS]

TUG_score

Table 3 [TUG]

Taken together, sesame was the clear winner. Not only was this food therapy superior in reducing the intensity of pain, but it was at least equal in effectiveness to Tylenol and glucosamine in both the KOOS and TUG tests. This, of course, was accomplished without the notorious side effects associated with Tylenol; to the contrary, sesame seed has a wide range of side benefits, which we covered recently in our article on sesame’s health benefits.

So, how much is 40 grams of sesame seed? A tablespoon of sesame seeds is approximately 9 grams. So, approximately 4 tablespoons will get you to what the study found to be a ‘clinical dose.’ Also, the researchers powdered the sesame seeds in order to enhance digestion. Remember, it is best to do this fresh with a mortar and pestle (first choice) or coffee grinder, also making sure that your seeds are raw, certified organic, and vetted to have not undergone gamma irradiation.

To truly appreciate the significance of this study, take a look at the growing body of toxicological research indicating that the unintended, adverse health effects of Tylenol (acetaminophen) far outweigh its purported benefits. We recently featured articles on the fact that even only occasional use of Tylenol may raise a child’s asthma risk 540%, and that it may be time for the FDA to remove it from the market.

For additional research on natural and/or integrative interventions for knee osteoarthritis visit our research page on the topic: knee osteoarthritis.

source: http://www.greenmedinfo.com/blog/eating-sesame-seeds-superior-tylenol-knee-arthritis

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

Disinfect Your Toothbrush Naturally

Disinfect

Streptococci, staphylococci and treponema denticola – these are just a few names of the different bacteria that exist in the average mouth every day. It is estimated that most people’s mouths have literally millions of these organisms thriving just on the surfaces of the teeth. Having an abundance of bacteria is a contributor to tooth decay and gum disease, so keeping an environment less friendly to the harmful bacteria is one way to promote oral health.

There are many options out there to disinfect your toothbrush ranging from special UV lamps to using bleach, dishwashing soap and your dishwasher! Thankfully, keeping your toothbrush clean and infection-free does not need to be so complicated. In fact, you most likely have the ingredients sitting in your cabinet right now.

Disinfect the Simple and Natural Way

Here are the 3 things that you will need:

  • water
  • vinegar
  • baking soda

Directions:

Pour 1/2 cup or 120 ml of water into a glass. Next add 2 tablespoons or 30 ml of white vinegar and 2 tsp or 10 mg of baking soda and mix well. Place your toothbrush (es) into the glass and leave for 30 minutes. Rinse well.

Vinegar and baking soda are both effective disinfectants and, in addition to disinfecting your toothbrushes, can be used throughout your home as an alternative to toxic commercial household cleaners.

It is important to discard your toothbrush every few months or once they show some wear. They become less efficient at cleaning teeth and should be replaced.

source: http://www.thenaturalsinger.com/natural-living-at-home/disinfect-your-toothbrush-naturally/

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

Home Remedy for Flu, Hacking Cough, Tight Congestion

1471333_593318537390023_1197376620_n

Home Remedy for flu, hacking cough, tight congestion.

  • 1/4 tsp. of Cayenne,
  • 1/2 tsp. of Ginger powder,
  • 1 tablespoon of Apple Cider Vinegar,
  • 2 Tablespoon Water, 1 Tablespoon Honey.

Dissolve cayenne and ginger in apple cider vinegar and water. Add honey and shake well. Take 1 Tsp as needed for cough. Works like a charm! Please SHARE this to everyone around.

source: http://www.juicewithdrew.com/

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

Why We All Need To Stop Cleaning With Bleach

Clorox_Concentrate

By Mark DeNicola

Chlorine Bleach. In many households it is one of the most commonly used and relied upon cleaners. It is most infamously known for it’s ability to keep clothes white, to assist in removing mold and mildew from a shower or tub and it’s disinfectant properties. For these specific purposes chlorine bleach certainly can be classified as effective, but for quite sometime now the negative side effects and potential dangers to using this cleaning product have been discussed in the public spotlight.

The most obvious danger of Chlorine Bleach is printed clearly on the label. It is a heavily corrosive material capable of irritating the eyes, skin and respiratory tract often by simply inhaling the gases its use emits. This inhalation has been noted to deteriorate the lungs and esophagus lining in addition to the scarring of the respiratory tract that I previously mentioned. These side effects may not occur to a visibly notable extent with each exposure to bleach, but the chemicals impact is never favourable, especially over a long period of time.

It is important to note that there is no FDA-type organization that regulates the cleaning products that are brought into your home. Instead groups such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) make warnings of the use of Chlorine Bleach publicly available. Under the assumption that consumers will continue to use Chlorine Bleach within their households, the following safety precautions are widely recommended:

  • Dilute the chlorine bleach with water. The lower concentration poses a potentially lesser risk of unwanted exposure.
  • Wear a safety mask and rubber gloves when working with bleach as a preventative measure.
  • Only use chlorine bleach in a well ventilated area to allow for sufficient air flow and to prevent the unwanted gasses from remaining stationary in the working space.
  • Never mix chlorine bleach with any other household cleaners.

The fourth and final recommendation is particularly worth noting because mixed with common ingredients -such as ammonia -found in many other household cleaners the fumes produced can become even more lethal and potentially fatal. Nose bleeds, neurological disorders, headaches, shortness of breath and chest pain, are just a small number of the potential side effects that can be experienced.

As helpful as these safety precautions can be, why not just stop using bleach altogether? Thankfully there are healthy alternatives to not only chlorine bleach but pretty well every toxic cleaning product out there. I can’t possibly share every alternative within this article but I would like to share a couple that I have come across and I invite you all to contribute your own findings through the comment section of the article.

Bleach Alternative (Source: Grit.com)
Mix 12 cups water, 1/4 cup lemon juice and 1 cup hydrogen peroxide. Add 2 cups per wash load or put in spray bottle and use as a household cleaner.

Whitening Scouring Powder (Source: Gaiam Life)
Combine 1 cup baking soda, 2 teaspoons cream of tartar, 1/8 cup borax, 1/4 cup grated lemon, orange or grapefruit peel and mix well. Scrub using a damp sponge.

Natural Orange All-Purpose Cleaner
As a part of the March Issue of CE Magazine, Alanna from the CE Team shared with readers a great all-purpose cleaner that is safe and easy to make at home.

Step 1: Save enough orange peels to fill a 1-liter mason jar
Step 2: Pour in 500mL (2 Cups) of white vinegar
Step 3: Seal the jar and let it sit in your cupboard or on your counter for 2 weeks
Step 4: Open the jar and remove the orange peels, keeping the liquid.
Step 5: Mix water with orange liquid solution, 4 parts water for every 1 part solution in a spray bottle. Clean away!
The Power of Baking Soda, White Vinegar & Lemon

These simple and non-corrosive or hazardous ingredients are true powerhouses when it comes to cleaning around the house. Baking soda is great for removing odors and freshening fabrics, lemon juice is fantastic for cutting through grease and white vinegar mixed with water is an awesome ammonia-free glass cleaner.

Just as we have discovered with chlorine bleach, there are always alternatives. Be sure to conduct your own research and make informed decisions about the things that you bring into your house and expose you and your loved ones to. Keep in mind that your understanding should always go beyond the label! Even cleaning products that are labelled as “natural,” “healthy,” or “organic” should always be looked into and thanks to the internet that information is most often readily available.

I’d like to finish off by sharing a brief list of particular chemicals that numerous sources within my research have posted as being important to look out for: Diethylene Glycol, Nonylphenol Ethoxylate, Ammonia, Perchloroethylene, Butyl Cellosolve, Formaldehyde, Methoxychlor, Naphthalene, Sulfuric Acid, Sodium Hydroxide, Potassium Hydroxide, Chloroform, Nitrobenzene, Dried Chlorine.

source: http://www.collective-evolution.com/2013/11/19/why-we-all-need-to-stop-cleaning-with-bleach/

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

Home Remedies for Kidney Stones – 7 Natural Solutions

8-M98-P2

Have you ever experienced kidney stones, or are you experiencing them right now? While these stones generally don’t cause any permanent damage, they can cause some of the most sharp and intense pain you’ve ever felt. You may want nothing more than painkillers while you guzzle down water to help the stones pass, but know this – they aren’t required, Actually, there are numerous home remedies for kidney stones that can hasten this uncomfortable and painful process.

The kidneys, along with our other detoxifying organs, including the liver, stomach, intestines, skin, etc., help to withdraw toxins from the blood so that they do not pollute the body. Unprocessed minerals and salts, like calcium, become crystallized and form into small spike-like balls that must then pass through the ureter, which can be very painful. In essence, kidney stones form when the kidneys are not able to process toxins efficiently. These stones can also cause a blockage of urine flow, which is a primary way the body rids itself of toxins as well.

Home Remedies for Kidney Stones – 7 Natural Solutions

The following home remedies for kidney stones can and have been used for not only kidney Stone removal, but also for prevention as well as tonics for the kidney organs.

1. Lemon Juice, Apple Cider Vinegar (with the Mother) and Olive Oil – This folk remedy is quite possibly the most effective solution for kidney stones. Mix 2 ounces of organic olive oil with 2 ounces of lemon juice – also organic. Drink it as is, and follow with at least 12 oz of purified water. If you are already taking some of these herbs that increase urine production, that will also be helpful. Wait around 30 minutes and then drink water which contains the juice of ½ of an organic lemon as well as 1 tablespoon of apple cider vinegar with the mother – ACV with the mother is full of digestive enzymes that are highly beneficial. Repeat just the lemon juice and apple cider vinegar water every 60 minutes until you feel better. Start as soon as symptoms arise to have the best results. This remedy works to dissolve the kidney stones and helps to painlessly rid them from your body.

2. Kidney Beans – If you have ever heard the old wives tale – foods resemble the organ they support – its true at least in this case. Kidney beans are beneficial for the kidneys because they help to get rid of sulfite build up. Sulfites cause oxidative stress in the kidneys and make it harder for them to do their job of toxin processing and removal.

3. Celery – Organic celery and celery seed are known diuretics, which means they help to create more urine and easier urine flow. You can use celery seed as a spice, or just munch on the stalks to keep your kidneys healthy. Although not among the most effective home remedies for kidney stones, it’s still a tip to consider.

4. Magnesium – Although you have to be careful not to take too much magnesium, the does benefit from a healthy amount. Most of us are deficient in magnesium, which can strain the kidneys and increase the risk of kidney disease. In many studies, participants who took a small dose of magnesium daily had up to 93% fewer cases of kidney stones. Just 300 mg of magnesium orotate is recommended.

5. Uva Ursi – This amazing herb can treat any bladder infection, urogenital tract issue or help prevent kidney stones. It’s cheap and works fast, and has been used for centuries to help cure these types of ailments. If you take Uva Ursi, however, you may need to replenish your potassium since it increases urine flow.

6. Horsetail – Used for bloating (endema), bladder and kidney stones, as well as burns, horsetail has a cooling effect from an Ayurvedic standpoint. Also called Shavegrass and ToadPipe due to its interesting look, the herb can support healthy kidneys, and rid the body of parasites as well.

7. Dandelion root – Often considered a weed or wild flower by many, this beneficial herb grows all over Europe, Asia and North America. Its dark green leaves are excellent for providing vitamins A, C, B-Complex and D. Native Americans used dandelion to treat kidney problems, and had much success due to its diuretic qualities, as well as high levels of potassium and ability to promote urine production.

source: http://naturalsociety.com/7-natural-home-remedies-for-kidney-stones/#ixzz2bvfqVZyC

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

5 Reasons why you should try Hemp Seed Oil

Olive-oil

By Marina Daniell

Hemp seed oil is probably one of the healthiest oils on the planet. If you’re not using hemp seed oil as an essential part of your daily diet, you’re missing out on one of nature’s most amazing health foods.

The main nutritional advantage of hemp seed oil over other oils is both in the composition of its oil (i.e. its fatty acid profile) and in its protein, which contains all of the essential amino acids at a ratio closer to other ‘complete’ sources of protein (such as meat or eggs).

For many years there was a misconception that hemp seed oil contained THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), the psychoactive element of the cannabis plant. Needless to say, there is no THC within the hemp seed.

Here are 5 reasons why you should try hemp seed oil:

1. Full of vitamins

Hemp seed oil is the only plant that contains vitamin D, which is necessary for calcium absorption. It also contains acids and antioxidants in the form of vitamin E and carotene as well as a number of minerals such as calcium, magnesium, sulfur, potassium and phosphorus.

2. Excellent for skin care

Hemp seed oil can prevent skin disorders like psoriasis, eczema, acne and dry skin. You can also use hemp seed oil as massage oil.

3. High in protein

Hemp seed oil is made up of 25 percent high-quality protein and provides the body with all of the essential amino acids in quantities and at a ratio similar to that of meats, milk and eggs.

4. Rich in essential fatty acids

Hemp seed oil’s high content of essential fatty acids is what makes it so exceptional. Our bodies don’t produce essential fatty acids so we need to ensure we are consuming good sources of it daily. Essential fatty acids don’t only provide our hair and skin with nutrients but they’re vital for the function and development of the brain and nervous system, as well as important to restoring health and immune function.

5. A great alternative to fish oil

Fish oil is rich in the essential fatty acid Omega 3 however some sources of fish oils can be contaminated with mercury and other toxins. Hemp seed oil, contains Omega 3, 6, and 9, and will provide the same benefits as fish oil without the danger of consuming toxins.

There are a lot ways to use hemp seed oil and just a few teaspoons a day could make significant differences in your health. With a pleasant nutty flavor, hemp seed oil is great to use in salad dressings, pestos and dips. It’s not suitable for frying however, as this reduces the benefits.

source: http://fitlife.tv/5-reasons-why-you-should-try-hemp-seed-oil/

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

A Seriously Potent Homemade Cellulite Cream

creme fraiche

Ladies, it’s time for a full-body detox.

In fact, this cleanse won’t leave you hungry and you don’t have to drink one single gulp of green sludge.

Instead, we’re going to work from the outside-in to rid your skin of gnarly cellulite dimples and have you beach body ready in a few short weeks.

We already know that cellulite is formed by fat deposits and toxins resting beneath your skin. Increased circulation helps flush these toxins and stimulate cell turnover for healthier looking skin.

We’ve gone over stimulating body scrubs, sensuous massage techniques and even a few cellulite-solving physical exercises, so now it’s time to really bring it all home.

To help get the most out of your new anti cellulite routine, I’m going to show you how to make a potent homemade cellulite cream.

This cream is rich with ingredients that nourish, moisturize, stimulate and effect your skin from the cellular level, right to the outermost layer.

So let’s get to it, shall we?

Homemade Cellulite Cream

All you need to make this badass homemade cellulite cream is a few essential oils and a base:

3/4 cup Coconut Oil
2 tablespoons shaved Beeswax
3 tablespoons Witch Hazel
10 drops Juniper oil
10 drops Rosemary oil
30 drops Grapefruit oil
30 drops Cypress oil

Once you have all your ingredients together, the process is simple:

Step 1 – Start by mixing together all of your essential oils and your witch hazel. Stir until evenly blended.

Step 2 – Over low heat, melt your beeswax then add in your coconut oil, if it is not liquid yet.

Step 3 – Once your beeswax and coconut oil is liquified, add it to your essential oil bowl and blend.

Step 4 – Pour contents into a resealable jar and store in a cool, dry place.

Why This Homemade Cellulite Cream Works

This homemade cellulite cream is powerfully potent thanks to the amazing essential oils.

I know what you must be thinking – how the heck can oils help to eliminate cellulite?

Well, for starters, Juniper is a diuretic and purifier while also being a great circulation stimulator.

Rosemary is essential for increasing blood flow throughout the body which significantly reduces the appearance of cellulite over time. It is also good for flushing your lymphatic system and helping with water retention.

Cyprus and grapefruit essential oils are both effective towards increasing circulation, relieving fluid retention and flushing toxins from your skin.

Witch hazel is another crucial ingredient for helping refine and tighten your skin, and having a more even-toned surface will deflect some of the visual effects of cellulite.

In time, the firming benefits of witch hazel will play an even bigger role in diminishing cellulite permanently.

Beeswax and coconut oil are both easily absorbed into your skin and help to infuse much needed moisture and simply makes for a great cream base.

This brilliant cream is great to use when you’re using my massage techniques to knead away nasty fat deposits.

To get the most of this cream, use it twice daily; once in the morning and once before bed.

Even better, use it right after your shower so your pores are ready, willing and able to absorb this luxurious treat and heal itself.

Firmly massage this cream into your skin to stimulate it even more.

This is quite possibly the most dazzling anti-cellulite remedy I’ve come up with yet!

Prep time and application only take minutes but the benefits are riveting.

source: http://topbeautybrands.com/homemade-cellulite-cream/

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized