BackgroundLycopene is a carotenoid present in human serum and skin as well as the liver, adrenal glands, lungs, prostate and colon. Lycopene has been found to possess antioxidant and antiproliferative properties in animal and laboratory studies, although activity in humans remains controversial.
Numerous studies correlate high intake of lycopene-containing foods or high lycopene serum levels with reduced incidence of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and macular degeneration. However, estimates of lycopene consumption have been based on reported tomato intake, not on the use of lycopene supplements. Since tomatoes are sources of other nutrients, including vitamin C, folate, and potassium, it is not clear that lycopene itself is beneficial.
There is no well-established definition of "lycopene deficiency," and direct evidence that repletion of low lycopene levels has any benefit is lacking. Usage and Dosing NB! The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy. Adults (18 years and older) There is no proven effective medicinal dose of lycopene or lycopene-rich vegetables. A common dosing range is 2-30 milligrams of lycopene taken daily by mouth for up to six months. Commercially available products such as Lyc-O-Mato® and Lyco-O-Pen® have been studied for various conditions as have lycopene oleoresin capsules. Children (younger than 18 years) There is not enough scientific evidence to recommend the use of lycopene supplements in children. Safety NB! There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects. Allergies Avoid lycopene in individuals with a known allergy/hypersensitivity to lycopene or tomatoes. Side Effects and Warnings The safety of lycopene supplements has not been thoroughly studied. Review of available scientific literature finds tomatoes, tomato-based products, and lycopene supplements generally well tolerated. However, rare reports of diarrhea, nausea, stomach pain or cramps, gas, vomiting, and loss of appetite have been reported. Tomatoes and tomato-based products may be acidic and irritate stomach ulcers. Lycopene has been associated with death from a cancer-related hemorrhage, although causality is unclear. Pregnancy and Breastfeeding There is not enough scientific research to recommend the use of lycopene supplements during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Amounts of lycopene found in foods are usually assumed to be safe. Tomato consumption has been shown to increase lycopene concentrations in breast milk and plasma of breastfeeding women.